In seiner Rede “A Moment for Opportunity” hielt Obama die Informations- und Pressefreiheit hoch:
Through our efforts we must support those basic rights to speak your mind and access information. We will support open access to the Internet, and the right of journalists to be heard – whether it’s a big news organization or a blogger. In the 21st century, information is power; the truth cannot be hidden; and the legitimacy of governments will ultimately depend on active and informed citizens. Such open discourse is important even if what is said does not square with our worldview.
4. unterstützt die gegenwärtig stattfindenden Arbeiten zur Stärkung des legislativen Umfelds im Zusammenhang mit der Meinungsfreiheit und dem Zugang zu Informationen; begrüßt in diesem Zusammenhang das neue isländische Mediengesetz (Icelandic Modern Media Initiative ), das es sowohl Island als auch der EU ermöglicht, sich im Hinblick auf den rechtlichen Schutz der freien Meinungsäußerung und der Informationsfreiheit stark zu positionieren;
Freedom of information: An “ultra-modern” Freedom of Information Act, based on the 2009 Council of Europe and OAS recommendations as well as modern elements in the FOI laws of Estonia, Scotland, the UK and Norway as well as the Aarhus convention.
Whistleblower protections: Protection for those who step forward to reveal important matters in the public interest, based on the US False Claims Act and the US Military Whistleblowers Act
Source protection: Protection for anonymous sources who attempt to communicate to the public after a promise of confidentiality by a journalist or media organisation. Based on new EEA legislation.
Source-journalist communications protection: Protection for the communications between an anonymous source and a media organisation and internally within a media organisation prior to publication. Based on the Belgium source protection law of 2005.
Limiting prior restraint: Prior restraint is coercion of a publisher, by a government authority, or through the judicial system, to prevent publication of a specific matter. While the Icelandic Constitution provides the right to freedom of expression, small modifications are needed to reduce the possibility of prior restraint.
Protection of intermediaries (Internet service providers): Immunity for “mere conduits”, ISPs and telecommunications carriers.
Protection from “libel tourism” and other extrajudicial abuses: Non-observance of foreign judgements that violate Icelandic freedom of expression protection, and the ability to file a counter-suit in Iceland against a party who engages in a calculated attempt to suppress the speech freedoms of an Icelandic entity. Inspired by legislation passed by the states of New York and Florida and proposed legislation elsewhere.
Statute of limitations on publishing liabilities: Recent rulings in Europe maintain that for Internet publications, each page view is publication afresh, regardless of how long ago the material was first released. This has resulted in the silent removal of investigative newspaper stories, including those over five years old, from the online archives of the Guardian and other major newspapers.
Process protections: The majority of legal suits related to publishing settle before final judgement. Hence the court process itself must ensure that it is not used to suppress speech through unequal access to justice, subpoenas, or other interlocutory motions. Process protections (called anti-SLAPP laws in the US) permit a judge to declare the matter a free speech related case, at which point protections are activated to prevent such abuses.
Virtual limited liability companies: Based on the LLC legislation used in the US state of Vermont.
Hier das Video von der Anhörung zu IMMI im Europäischen Parlament am 20. April 2011, Teil 2. Die Anhörung startet bei Minute 3:35. Deutlich wird die Sorge um die Pressefreiheit in der EU angesichts der Entwicklungen in Ungarn (9:30) in der Einführung (bis 12:35). Danach werden mehrere Whistleblower angehört. Als erster kommt Ad Bos, ein Whistleblower aus den Niederlanden (bis 17:58). Danach (ab 18:58) mit Floor Drost ein weiterer Whistleblower aus den Niederlanden (bis 25:30).
Zu IMMI und der kontraproduktiven Wirkung der Vorratsdatenspeicherung eine Ausführung von Smári McCarthy (27:30-33:00). Danach eine wichtige Nachfrage, ob Whistleblower nicht nur digital, sondern auch real überhaupt geschützt werden können. Die meisten gehen nämlich irgendwann aus der Deckung. Dazu die Antwort ab 34:00 durch einen Whistleblower und ab 38:00 von McCarthy.
Guido Strack äußert sich ab 38:20 bis 43:35 ebenfalls zum Thema Whistleblower-Schutz und seiner Skepsis gegenüber dem Thema Anonymität, die nicht wirklich funktioniere: “Most Whistleblowers will be known by the message itself”. Whistleblowing müsse zum “standard behaviour” werden, da in großen Fällen der “Leaker” gesucht werde. “Deep Throat” sei eine große Ausnahme, da er ein “trained intelligence man” gewesen sei, normale Menschen jedoch würden gerne über ihre Leistungen sprechen.
Ab 48:00 ein paar Gedanken zu den geplanten Überwachungsmaßnahmen der EU hinsichtlich des Internet.
Auf dem zehnten Weltsozialforum in Dakar wurde im Februar folgende Erklärung zum Grundrecht auf Kommunikation verabschiedet:
We, actors in the field of alternative information as well as citizen activists who use communication as a tool for social transformation:
Note that, in a global context:
information is held in a stranglehold by political, economic and industrial forces and is manipulated by the governments and States;
freedom of expression is being denied, thwarted or repressed;
there is little or no guarantee for an unfettered access to information for all citizens;
a violent repression is unleashed upon citizens and actors in the field of information;
information is being commodified and standardized;
there is an increasing distrust by public opinion regarding information conveyed by the mainstream media.
We also note, particularly in Africa:
an almost total absence of laws favouring citizens’ access to information;
freedom of expression and freedom of the press being undermined by repressive laws;
hindrances and restrictions, if not outright censorship, placed upon communities who wish to establish community media.
At the same time, we see new perspectives opening up, in the face of this disturbing situation:
a greater awareness and ability by citizens to participate in the production and circulation of information in order to promote social justice;
the emergence of alternative media and the stepping unto the stage of citizens who contribute to social and political change, as evidenced by recent events in Tunisia and Egypt.
We declare that the right to communicate is a fundamental right and a common good of humanity.
We commit ourselves to:
defend, support and promote all initiatives that ensure and extend the right to communication and information as a fundamental human right;
building advocacy for a legislative and regulatory framework for public, alternative and community media, including ensuring among others a better right to airwave-access and broadcasting options;
recognize and protect the actors and activists involved in information and communication around the world;
create and strengthen synergies between all actors and activists working towards social transformation;
promote accessibility and popular ownership/mastery of media and information/communication technology by all citizens, without restriction of gender, class or origin;
promote mechanisms for ongoing communication between the various actors, participants and organizers of social forums, including the “extended” Social Forum as well as the various experiences of shared communication.
support the development and strengthening of community and alternative media;
combat censorship and guarantee freedom of expression on the Internet;
work towards the elaboration of a model that ensures the viability, sustainability and independence of the alternative media;
give a central place to issues of communication rights in the thematic spaces of social forums.
Center our information campaigns and awareness-raising activities on key issues that are on the international agenda (Rio+20, G8, G20, Palestine Forum, Durban, etc.).
Organize a World Forum of Free and Alternative Media in 2012, as part of the WSF process.
As actors of communication, we clearly state our support for the Tunisian and Egyptian peoples, we call on their governments to lift censorship and to stop the repression against all citizens and actors in the field of information.
We also call on all actors of social change and to unite our forces in the struggle for the right to information and communication, without which no change is possible.